Claiming Benefits – What are benefits?
Benefits and tax credits are payments from the government to certain people on low incomes, or to meet specific needs. Read our guide to find out more about them and how to claim.
What are benefits?
Benefits and tax credits are payments from the government to certain people on low incomes, or to meet specific needs. They can help you if you:
- Are on a low income
- Are out of work
- Have children
- Are pregnant
- Are sick or disabled
- Have been bereaved
- Are a carer
Who administers benefits?
Different organisations administer different benefits. These include:
- Department for Work and Pensions DWP which operates through agencies such as Jobcentre Plus and The Pensions Service
- HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)
- Local authorities/councils
Employers pay some benefits then claim the money back from the government. These are called Statutory Benefits
What types of benefits are there?
Benefits usually come under one of two types:
Your entitlement to means-tested benefits depends on how much you have in income, savings and other capital. You can get these benefits even if you have not paid enough national insurance contributions.
If you have over a certain amount (the amount the government estimates that you need to live on), your means-tested benefits are less or not paid at all.
The amount of means-tested benefits you get can be different for each person. You can check your entitlement to means-tested benefits in our Benefits Calculator.
Non-means-tested benefits don’t take into account your income and savings in the same way as means-tested benefits do, but they do have their own rules which must be met:
These benefits are to replace earnings, for example when you lose your job or are unable to work because of illness or disability. Whether you get the benefit depends on if you (or in some cases your partner) have paid or been credited with enough national insurance contributions. They are not means-tested, but if you have income in the form of earnings or pension payments the amount you get may be affected.
These benefits replace earnings if you are off work due to maternity/adoption/paternity or sickness. There is no means-test but there are earnings rules to meet in order to qualify. These benefits are paid through your employer.
Mostly these benefits are intended to help with the extra costs of having a disability or caring for someone with a disability. There is no means-test and no national insurance contributions conditions, you just have to fit the rules for who can claim. They are usually ignored as income for means-tested benefits
Checking benefit entitlement
It can be complicated to work out what you are entitled to.
You can use our Benefit Calculator to check your entitlement to means-tested benefits. The results page will tell you which means-tested benefits and tax credits you may be entitled to and how much you may receive. If you are new to the Turn2us Benefits Calculator, see our guide for using the Benefits Calculator.
You can look at our Your Situation sections to find out about other benefits that you may entitled to.
How to claim
How do I make a claim?
To claim a benefit, you will usually have to fill in a form, either on paper or online, or make a telephone call.
Each benefit has its own claiming process.
Do I need to provide evidence to support my claim?
In many cases, yes. For example, you will usually have to give your National Insurance number and may be asked to show evidence of your identity, income and savings.
If you have to send off original documents make sure you keep copies and send them recorded delivery to make sure they arrive safely.
How long will it take to process my claim?
The time can vary depending on the benefit. Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) agencies and Local Authorities have targets but HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) does not.
You can help by completing the claim form thoroughly and providing evidence promptly. See ‘Further information about how long it takes to process a claim’ within this guide including target times for processing claims.
What can I do if my claim is delayed?
There are many reasons why a claim might be delayed. For example:
- You may be unable to provide a national insurance number straight away
- There could be an error by you or the benefit agency
- Further information or evidence may be required to support a claim
- There could be delays in processing claims at the benefit agency
- There could be a problem with the payment method
If you have provided all the information requested to support your claim, and it has been longer than the set target time for processing claims, you may want to contact the relevant benefit agency to find out why there is a delay.
- Contact Jobcentre Plus
- Contact The Pensions Service
- Contact your local authority/council
- Contact HM Revenue and Customs
If your claim is delayed and you are experiencing financial difficulties you may be able to get a Short Term Benefit Advance.
How will I receive the benefit payment?
Most benefits are paid directly to your post office, bank or building society account but there are exceptions.
Council Tax Support will usually go straight to your Council Tax account and will be taken off your Council Tax liability on your bill.
Housing Benefit is sometimes paid to you but it may be paid directly to your landlord in some circumstances.
If you have difficulties opening or managing an account, you may receive payments through the Payment Exception Service.
You can also nominate a person to receive the payment on your behalf if needed.
When will I receive the benefit payment?
When you are paid will depend on the benefit you have claimed. Some benefits are paid weekly, some every four weeks or monthly.
Some are paid in advance and some in arrears.
Check the How and when your benefits are paid page of the Gov.UK website for an overview.
What do I do if I think they’ve made the wrong decision?
If you are unhappy with a benefit or tax credit decision there are several steps you can take:
- Get more information about the decision.
- Get the decision looked at again.
- Appeal against the decision.
I’m not happy with the way my claim has been handled what can I do?
You have the right to expect a reasonable standard of service from the people dealing with your benefit claim.
Most offices that deal with benefits, including your Local Authority, will have a charter or statement of standards of service that sets out what you can expect. You will be able to get this from their offices or websites.
If you are not happy with the level of service you have received then you can make a complaint. You can complain whether or not you have made a claim for benefit.
How long does it take to process a claim?
The time taken to process a benefit claim can vary depending on the benefit being claimed and which benefit office deals with the claim.
For all benefits, you can help make sure your claim is processed as quickly as possible by completing the claim thoroughly and providing any further information requested promptly.
You will usually receive your first payment of Universal Credit around 5-6 weeks after you claim. It can take longer if you have to satisfy a habitual residence test.
Payment Exception Service
The Payment Exception Service is a way to pay benefits to people who cannot use bank, building society, credit union or Post Office card accounts. It replaced the Simple Payments system from March 2018.
How does the Payment Exception Service work?
You may be sent a payment card which you can use to collect your benefit payments at a PayPoint outlet.
These can be found in local newsagents, convenience stores or supermarkets. To find your nearest PayPoint outlet, visit the PayPoint website.
If you don’t have a card you will be sent:
- A voucher by email
- A text message with a unique reference number
To collect a payment, you need to:
- Show your card, voucher or text message at the PayPoint outlet
- Show proof of your identity.
You must claim within 30 days of the card, voucher or text message being sent to you.
You’ll also need to show proof of your identity (ID). Copies are not acceptable. It must be the original document.
Examples of ID you can use:
- Valid UK photo or paper driving licence
- Current passport
- A gas, electricity, water or landline phone bill (this must be less than three months old).
How much money can you collect?
You are only allowed to collect up to £100 for each payment collection. You might have to make more than one payment collection at a time to collect your full amount of benefit due.
Getting someone else to collect your money
If you want someone else to collect your money for you, they will need
- your payment card or voucher
- your ID
- their own ID
If someone else is managing your benefits for you on a regular basis, you might like to arrange for them to be made your appointee. This means they can talk to the DWP on your behalf and make decisions about your benefits for you.
Gov.UK has more information about the Payment Exception Service and a ‘Find your nearest PayPoint outlet’ tool.
Challenges and complaints
There is a process for challenging most benefit and tax credit decisions and all local authorities and statutory organisations have a procedure in place for raising a complaint.
Discover the steps you can take if you are unhappy with a benefit or tax credit decision, or the service you have received by clicking on the guides below.
Change in circumstances
My situation has changed since making my claim. Do I have to let anyone know?
It is very important to let the relevant benefit office know when there has been a change in your circumstances which could affect your benefit entitlement. This is because your benefits depend on the information you gave when you made your claim.
When you make a claim you will be told which changes must be reported and how long you have to report the change.
Common changes include:
- You start living with someone
- You stop living with someone. For example, you separate from your partner
- You get a job
- Your hours of work change
- You get a pay rise
- You win or inherit some money
- Your child reaches the age of 16 or moves out
- You stop getting benefits like Income Support
- You go into hospital or into residential care.
If your circumstances change, you may be entitled to more benefit, less benefit, or you may no longer be entitled to get the benefit at all.
If you do not inform the relevant benefits office you could be paid too much benefit and have to pay it back, and this could count as fraud which is a criminal offence.
If you get into trouble because you did not report a change in your circumstances, it is very important to get expert advice as soon as you can.
For more information, see the GOV.UK information on civil penalties for not reporting changes that affect your benefits.
If you have recently separated from a person with whom you used to live as partners, the benefits you can get may have changed.
After separating from your partner, you may receive some benefits or tax credits that you were not able to get when living with a partner, or you might get an increased or decreased amount of the same benefits and Tax Credits.
Generally any benefits paid to you personally for your needs, for example, Disability Living Allowance, will continue to be paid once you have separated from a partner. However, you should tell everyone who pays you benefits or Tax Credits that you have separated, so that they can check if it could affect your benefit entitlement.
You might be receiving benefits from Jobcentre Plus, HM Revenue and Customs and/or your local authority and should tell each office about your change.
If you do not let them know as soon as you can that you are now a single person, you might be paid too much benefit that you may have to pay back.